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"419" Scam – Advance Fee / Fake Lottery Scam

The so-called "419" scam is a type of fraud dominated by criminals from Nigeria and other countries in Africa. Victims of the scam are promised a large amount of money, such as a lottery prize, inheritance, money sitting in some bank account, etc.

Victims never receive this non-existent fortune but are tricked into sending their money to the criminals, who remain anonymous. They hide their real identity and location by using fake names and fake postal addresses as well as communicating via anonymous free email accounts and mobile phones.

Keep in mind that scammers DO NOT use their real names when defrauding people.
The criminals either abuse names of real people or companies or invent names or addresses.
Any real people or companies mentioned below have NO CONNECTION to the scammers!

Read more about such scams here or in our 419 FAQ. Use the Scam-O-Matic to verify suspect emails.

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Some comments by the Scam-O-Matic about the following email:

Fraud email example:

From: Pacheco Leo <>
Date: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 11:09:16 -0500
Subject: proposal for business partnership

My name is Pacheco Leo, serving in United States Army DMI attached to
M-ups, around the boarder line of Turkey and Syria. I need your sincere
and truthful friendship and also wishes to entrust some funds into your
care ($45 Million US Dollars) that I successfully moved out of the
country. For your time and assistance am offering you 20% of the total
money. Respond to me at so that we can proceed
with the project. Thank you.


Anti-fraud resources: