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"419" Scam – Advance Fee / Fake Lottery Scam

The so-called "419" scam is a type of fraud dominated by criminals from Nigeria and other countries in Africa. Victims of the scam are promised a large amount of money, such as a lottery prize, inheritance, money sitting in some bank account, etc.

Victims never receive this non-existent fortune but are tricked into sending their money to the criminals, who remain anonymous. They hide their real identity and location by using fake names and fake postal addresses as well as communicating via anonymous free email accounts and mobile phones.

Keep in mind that scammers DO NOT use their real names when defrauding people.
The criminals either abuse names of real people or companies or invent names or addresses.
Any real people or companies mentioned below have NO CONNECTION to the scammers!

Read more about such scams here or in our 419 FAQ. Use the Scam-O-Matic to verify suspect emails.

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Some comments by the Scam-O-Matic about the following email:

Fraud email example:

From: Paulo Gabani <>
Date: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 11:19:36 -0800
Subject: Re: Re: Signed Proforma Invoice

Good Day,

I’m glad to send you the attached signed Proforma Invoice as instructed.

Please before we send out payment, we need CONFIRMATION of the Bank
and Beneficiary details in Proforma Invoice.

So please check carefully everything and confirm to me all details asap.

Please arrange mass production asap and confirm me shipment time.

Thanks and Best Regards,
Paulo Gabani
GICOS Import-export srl
Via F. Seminara sn - Cinquefrondi RC - Italy
Tel. 0966 941817 - 0966 935233 - Fax 0966 941961

Anti-fraud resources: